Section S1. Sex ratios, effective population size and population viability • Table S1. Competing models for sex at birth • Table S2. Full and minimum adequate models testing the effects of drivers of individual sex ratios. Tables and Figures from Drivers of sex ratio bias in the eastern bongo: lower inbreeding increases the probability of being born male
2019-05-02T11:38:40Z (GMT) by
Parent sex ratio allocation has consequences for individual fitness, population dynamics, and conservation. Theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio when the fitness returns of producing male or female offspring varies. Previous studies have assumed that only mothers are capable of biasing offspring sex ratios, but have neglected fathers, given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing (CBS) bearing sperm in ejaculates due to sex chromosome segregation at meiosis. This assumption has been recently refuted and both paternal fertility and paternal genetic quality have been shown to bias sex ratios. Here, we simultaneously test the relative contribution of paternal, maternal, and individual genetic quality, as measured by inbreeding, on the probability of being born a son or a daughter, using pedigree and lifelong offspring sex ratio data for the eastern bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci). Our models showed first, that surprisingly, as individual inbreeding decreases the probability of being born male increases, second, that paternal genetic effects on sex ratio were stronger than maternal genetic effects (which were absent). Furthermore, paternal effects were opposite in sign to those predicted; father inbreeding increases the probability of having sons. Previous paternal effects have been interpreted as adaptive due to sex-specific inbreeding depression for reproductive traits. We argue that in the eastern bongo, the opposite sign of the paternal effect on sex ratios results from a reversed sex-specific inbreeding depression pattern (present for female but not male reproductive traits). We anticipate that this research will help stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios. Finally, the results open a new avenue of research to predict sex ratio allocation in an applied conservation context. Future models of sex ratio allocation should also include the predicted inbreeding level of the offspring and paternal inbreeding levels.