The Royal Society

Supplementary material from "Moralizing gods, impartiality and religious parochialism across 15 societies"

Version 2 2019-03-04, 04:50
Version 1 2019-02-25, 09:01
Posted on 2019-03-04 - 04:50
The emergence of large-scale cooperation during the Holocene remains a central problem in the evolutionary literature. One hypothesis points to culturally evolved beliefs in punishing, interventionist gods that facilitate the extension of cooperative behaviour toward geographically distant co-religionists. Furthermore, another hypothesis points to such mechanisms being constrained to the religious ingroup, possibly at the expense of religious outgroups. To test these hypotheses, we administered two behavioural experiments and a set of interviews to a sample of 2228 participants from 15 diverse populations. These populations included foragers, pastoralists, horticulturalists, and wage labourers, practicing Buddhism, Christianity, and Hinduism, but also forms of animism and ancestor worship. Using the Random Allocation Game (RAG) and the Dictator Game (DG) in which individuals allocated money between themselves, local and geographically distant co-religionists, and religious outgroups, we found that higher ratings of gods as monitoring and punishing predicted decreased local favouritism (RAGs) and increased resource-sharing with distant co-religionists (DGs). The effects of punishing and monitoring gods on outgroup allocations revealed between-site variability, suggesting that in the absence of intergroup hostility, moralizing gods may be implicated in cooperative behaviour toward outgroups. These results provide support for the hypothesis that beliefs in monitoring and punitive gods help expand the circle of sustainable social interaction, and open questions about the treatment of religious outgroups.


3 Biotech
3D Printing in Medicine
3D Research
3D-Printed Materials and Systems
AAPG Bulletin
AAPS PharmSciTech
Abhandlungen aus dem Mathematischen Seminar der Universität Hamburg
ABI Technik (German)
Academic Medicine
Academic Pediatrics
Academic Psychiatry
Academic Questions
Academy of Management Discoveries
Academy of Management Journal
Academy of Management Learning and Education
Academy of Management Perspectives
Academy of Management Proceedings
Academy of Management Review
Select your citation style and then place your mouse over the citation text to select it.



Usage metrics

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences


Martin Lang
Benjamin G. Purzycki
Coren L. Apicella
Quentin D. Atkinson
Alexander Bolyanatz
Emma Cohen
Carla Handley
Eva Kundtová Klocová
Carolyn Lesorogol
Sarah Mathew
Rita A. McNamara
Cristina Moya
Caitlyn D. Placek
Montserrat Soler
Thomas Vardy
Jonathan L. Weigel
Aiyana K. Willard
Dimitris Xygalatas
Ara Norenzayan
Joseph Henrich
need help?