Supplementary material from "Homogenization of cortical bone reveals that the organization and shape of pores marginally affect elasticity"

Published on 2019-02-12T10:55:39Z (GMT) by
With ageing and various diseases, the vascular pore volume fraction (porosity) in cortical bone increases, and the morphology of the pore network is altered. Cortical bone elasticity is known to decrease with increasing porosity, but the effect of the microstructure is largely unknown, while it has been thoroughly studied for trabecular bone. Also, popular micromechanical models have disregarded several micro-architectural features, idealizing pores as cylinders aligned with the axis of the diaphysis. The aim of this paper is to quantify the relative effects on cortical bone anisotropic elasticity of porosity and other descriptors of the pore network micro-architecture associated with pore number, size and shape. The five stiffness constants of bone assumed to be a transversely isotropic material were measured with resonant ultrasound spectroscopy in 55 specimens from the femoral diaphysis of 29 donors. The pore network, imaged with synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-computed tomography, was used to derive the pore descriptors and to build a homogenization model using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method. The model was calibrated using experimental elasticity. A detailed analysis of the computed effective elasticity revealed in particular that porosity explains most of the variations of the five stiffness constants and that the effects of other micro-architectural features are small compared to usual experimental errors. We also have evidence that modelling the pore network as an ensemble of cylinders yields biased elasticity values compared to predictions based on the real micro-architecture. The FFT homogenization method is shown to be particularly efficient to model cortical bone.

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Cai, Xiran; Brenner, Renald; Peralta, Laura; Olivier, Cécile; Gouttenoire, Pierre-Jean; Chappard, Christine; et al. (2019): Supplementary material from "Homogenization of cortical bone reveals that the organization and shape of pores marginally affect elasticity". The Royal Society. Collection.