Supplementary material from "Biodiversity cradles and museums segregating within hotspots of endemism"

Posted on 05.08.2022 - 16:26
The immense concentrations of vertebrate species in tropical mountains remain a prominent but unexplained pattern in biogeography (Rahbek et al. 2019 Science 365, 1108–1113. (doi:10.1126/science.aax0149); Rangel et al. 2018 Science 361, eaar5452. (doi:10.1126/science.aar5452); Davies et al. 2007 Proc. R. Soc. B 274, 1189–1197. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.0061); Rahbek et al. 2007 Proc. R. Soc. B 274, 165–174. (doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3700)). A long-standing hypothesis suggests that montane biodiversity hotspots result from endemic species aggregating within ecologically stable localities (Fjeldså 1994 Biodivers. Conserv. 3, 207–226. (doi:10.1007/BF00055939)). Here, the persistence of ancient lineages coincides with frequent speciation events, making such areas both ‘cradles’ (where new species arise) and ‘museums’ (where old species survive). Although this hypothesis refers to processes operating at the scale of valleys, it remains supported primarily by patterns generated from coarse-scale distribution data (Rahbek et al. 2019 Science 365, 1114–1119. (doi:10.1126/science.aax0151); Fjeldså et al. 2012 Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 43, 249–265. (doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-102710-145113); Dagallier et al. 2020 New Phytol. 225, 2196–2213. (doi:10.1111/nph.16293); Hutter et al. 2017 Am. Nat. 190, 828–843. (doi:10.1086/694319); Sandel et al. 2011 Science 334, 660–664. (doi:10.1126/science.1210173); López-Pujol et al. 2011 J. Biogeogr. 38, 1267–1280. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02504.x); Harvey et al. 2020 Science 370, 1343–1348. (doi:10.1126/science.aaz6970)). Using high-resolution occurrence and phylogenetic data on Andean hummingbirds, we find that old and young endemic species are not spatially aggregated. The young endemic species tend to have non-overlapping distributions scattered along the Andean treeline, a long and narrow habitat where populations easily become fragmented. By contrast, the old endemic species have more aggregated distributions, but mainly within pockets of cloud forests at lower elevations than the young endemic species. These findings contradict the premise that biogeographical cradles and museums should overlap in valley systems where pockets of stable climate persist through periods of climate change. Instead, Andean biodiversity hotspots may derive from large-scale fluctuating climate complexity (Rangel et al. 2018 Science 361, eaar5452. (doi:10.1126/science.aar5452)) in conjunction with local-scale variability in available area and habitat connectivity (Graves 1988 The Auk 105, 47–52. (doi:10.1093/auk/105.1.47); Graves 1985 The Auk 102, 556–579. (doi:10.1093/auk/102.3.556)).


Sonne, Jesper; Dalsgaard, Bo; Borregaard, Michael K.; Kennedy, Jonathan; Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten (2022): Supplementary material from "Biodiversity cradles and museums segregating within hotspots of endemism". The Royal Society. Collection.
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Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences


Jesper Sonne
Bo Dalsgaard
Michael K. Borregaard
Jonathan Kennedy
Jon Fjeldså
Carsten Rahbek
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