Movie S8: Effect of using different metabolic energy models in the cost function on the predicted walking patterns. from Rapid predictive simulations with complex musculoskeletal models suggest that diverse healthy and pathological human gaits can emerge from similar control strategies

Comparison between predictive simulations, at the preferred walking speed (1.33 m s-1), with the nominal cost function but relying on different metabolic energy models (white model: Bhargava et al. (2004); blue model: Uchida et al. (2016); yellow model: Umberger et al. (2003); red model: Umberger (2010)). Overall, the simulated walking patterns are qualitatively similar. Note the straighter knee pattern with the models of Bhargava et al. (2004) and Umberger (2010). The playback speed is 0.2 times real-time.