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Excavation of hard wood from Social consequences of energetically costly nest construction in a facultatively social bee

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posted on 2021-04-08, 08:43 authored by Madeleine M. Ostwald, Trevor P. Fox, Jon F. Harrison, Jennifer H. Fewell
A female carpenter bee excavates hard (willow) wood inside the respirometry chamber. Only minor excavation progress was made during hard wood excavation trials.