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Supplementary tables and figures from Negative associations between parasite avoidance, resistance and tolerance predict host health in salmonid fish populations

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journal contribution
posted on 08.04.2020 by Ines Klemme, Pekka Hyvärinen, Anssi Karvonen
Genetic variation in defence against parasite infections is fundamental for host–parasite evolution. The overall level of defence of a host individual or population includes mechanisms that reduce parasite exposure (avoidance), establishment (resistance) or pathogenicity (tolerance). However, how these traits operate and evolve in concert is not well understood. Here, we investigated genetic variation in and associations between avoidance, resistance and tolerance in a natural host–parasite system. Replicated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (an anadromous form of brown trout, Salmo trutta) were raised under common garden conditions and infected with the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum. We demonstrate significant genetic variation in the defence traits across host populations and negative associations between the traits, with the most resistant populations showing the weakest avoidance and the lowest infection tolerance. These results are suggestive of trade-offs between different components of defence and possibly underlie the genetic variation in defence traits observed in the wild. Because the three defence mechanisms affect host–parasite evolution in profoundly different ways, we emphasize the importance of studying these traits in concert.