Supplementary Information from Fundamental limitations of network reconstruction from temporal data

Inferring properties of the interaction matrix that characterizes hownodes in a networked system directly interact with each other is a well-known network reconstruction problem. Despite a decade of extensive studies, network reconstruction remains an outstanding challenge. The fundamental limitations governing which properties of the interaction matrix (e.g. adjacency pattern, sign pattern or degree sequence) can be inferred from given temporal data of individual nodes remain unknown. Here, we rigorously derive necessary conditions to reconstruct any property of the interaction matrix. Counterintuitively, we find that reconstructing any property of the interaction matrix is generically as difficult as reconstructing the interaction matrix itself, requiring equally informative temporal data. Revealing these fundamental limitations sheds light on the design of better network reconstruction algorithms that offer practical improvements over existing methods.