Figure S.2: Photographs showing (A) A dog feeding on abandoned carcass of a sheep (B) animals and humans sharing a water source, (C) Un – attended carcass oozing blood as it was found in one the study sites and (D) livestock and wildlife grazing together in the hotspot districts of northern Tanzania from Risk factors for human cutaneous anthrax outbreaks in the hotspot districts of Northern Tanzania: an unmatched case–control study

Interactions between livestock-wildlife and humans as a facilitating factor for continued transmission of B. anthracis in the hotspot areas of northern Tanzania. In our study, we have demonstrated that there was a close temporal relationship between the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in animals (livestock and wildlife) and in humans. This might have been attributed by the existing interaction between the contaminated environment, livestock, wildlife, and humans. The role of scavengers like stray dogs consuming on the infected carcasses can be some of the facilitating factors. For transmission of anthrax in the places where anthrax outbreaks have occurred are being facilitated by sharing of water collected points between humans and animals, an increased interaction of wildlife and livestock during grazing, and poor disposal of anthrax-infected animal carcasses.