ESM Table 1. Examples of research in cities. from Getting ahead of the curve: cities as surrogates for global change

Examples of research in cities since 2003, where species responses to variation in climate or urban variables were measured. Type indicates whether research was performed within-city (U; Urban), along an urban-rural gradient (U-R), or along a latitudinal gradient (L). Locations are shown by 2-letter country codes, with state or city in parentheses. Variables measured include climate variables: Temperature (T), Carbon Dioxide (C), Ozone (O), Nitrogen deposition (N), Soil moisture (S), and Relative Humidity (RH), and urban variables (U). Examples are limited to studies with plants or arthropods as focal taxa.