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Combined ESM Figures S1-S6, Tables S1-S8 from Sexual conflict over remating interval is modulated by the sex peptide pathway

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posted on 15.02.2017 by Damian T. Smith, Naomi V. E. Clarke, James M. Boone, Claudia Fricke, Tracey Chapman
Sexual conflict, in which the evolutionary interests of males and females diverge, shapes the evolution of reproductive systems across diverse taxa. Here, we used the fruit fly to study sexual conflict in natural, three-way interactions comprising a female, her current and previous mates. We manipulated the potential for sexual conflict by using sex peptide receptor (SPR) null females and by varying remating from 3 to 48 h, a period during which natural rematings frequently occur. SPR-lacking females do not respond to sex peptide (SP) transferred during mating and maintain virgin levels of high receptivity and low fecundity. In the absence of SPR, there was a convergence of fitness interests, with all individuals gaining highest productivity at 5 h remating. This suggests that the expression of sexual conflict was reduced. We observed an unexpected second male-specific advantage to early remating, resulting from an increase in the efficiency of second male sperm use. This early window of opportunity for exploitation by second males depended on the presence of SPR. The results suggest that the SP pathway can modulate the expression of sexual conflict in this system, and show how variation in the selective forces that shape conflict and cooperation can be maintained.

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