Audience effect on mating behaviour_sub 3_Supplementary.docx from Oestrous females avoid mating in front of adult male bystanders in wild chacma baboons

In social species, female mating strategies can be constrained by both male and female groupmates through sexual conflict and reproductive competition, respectively. This study tests if females adjust their sexual behaviour according to the presence of male and female bystanders in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) and assesses their relative importance. Our results show that oestrous females initiate fewer copulations in the presence of adult male bystanders, irrespective of whether they are mate-guarded or not. This inhibitory effect probably reflects a response to indirect sexual coercion by males, whose close proximity may dissuade females to initiate copulations with rival males to avoid punishment and/or aggressive mating interference. By contrast, females initiate more matings with their mate-guard in the presence of higher-ranking female bystanders, which may reflect an attempt to secure bodyguard services from their mate when they feel threatened. These results emphasize the importance of intra- and intersexual conflicts in shaping female sexual behaviour in this promiscuous society.