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Supplementary Figure 2 from Phosphorylation of Parkin at Serine65 is essential for its activation in vivo

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posted on 17.10.2018, 16:48 by Thomas G. McWilliams, Erica Barini, Risto Pohjolan-Pirhonen, Simon P. Brooks, François Singh, Sophie Burel, Kristin Balk, Atul Kumar, Lambert Montava-Garriga, Alan R. Prescott, Sidi Mohamed Hassoun, François Mouton-Liger, Graeme Ball, Rachel Hills, Axel Knebel, Ayse Ulusoy, Donato A. Di Monte, Jevgenia Tamjar, Odetta Antico, Kyle Fears, Laura Smith, Riccardo Brambilla, Eino Palin, Miko Valori, Johanna Eerola-Rautio, Pentti Tienari, Olga Corti, Stephen B. Dunnett, Ian G. Ganley, Anu Suomalainen, Miratul M. K. Muqit
Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin result in autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Cell culture and in vitro studies have elaborated the PINK1-dependent regulation of Parkin and defined how this dyad orchestrates the elimination of damaged mitochondria via mitophagy. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin at Serine 65 (Ser65) and Parkin at an equivalent Ser65 residue located within its N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain resulting in activation; however, the physiological significance of Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation in vivo in mammals remains unknown. To address this, we generated a Parkin S65A knock-in mouse model. We observe endogenous ParkinSer65 phosphorylation and activation in mature primary neurons following mitochondrial depolarization and reveal this is disrupted in ParkinS65A/S65A neurons. Phenotypically, ParkinS65A/S65A mice exhibit selective motor dysfunction in the absence of any overt neurodegeneration or alterations in nigrostriatal mitophagy. The clinical relevance of our findings is substantiated by the discovery of homozygous PARKIN (PARK2) p.S65N mutations in two unrelated patients with PD. Moreover, biochemical and structural analysis demonstrates that the ParkinS65N mutant is pathogenic and cannot be activated by PINK1. Our findings highlight the central role of Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation in health and disease.