Table 1 from Humans recognize emotional arousal in vocalizations across all classes of terrestrial vertebrates: evidence for acoustic universals
2017-07-24T11:51:31Z (GMT) by
Description of the vocalization sample used in our study and, when applicable, of the published studies in which they are described. In column “Non-vocal indicator/s of arousal” we provide references for studies assessing the link between the observed behavior, and physiological or neural response as indicator of arousal state.; * See references for details on methods for acoustic recordings; ** In the hourglass treefrog, aggressive calls are longer than advertisement calls in duration. Leading males produce aggressive calls in order to increase the chance of being heard by the female (19, 20).; *** Medium arousal calls were classified as expressing a relatively higher level of arousal when paired with a call classified as low arousal (suckling context). When paired with a call classified as high arousal (separation context) medium calls were classified as expressing a lower level of arousal.; **** Reported behavioral indicators of high arousal in elephants: lifted ears, raised head, lifted tail, temporin secretion (56-58).