Supplementary material from The cell uptake properties and hyperthermia performance of Zn0.5Fe2.5O4/SiO2 nanoparticles as magnetic hyperthermia agents

Zn0.5Fe2.5O4 nanoparticles (NPs) of 22 nm are synthesized by a one-pot approach and coated with silica for magnetic hyperthermia agents. The NPs exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics, high-specific absorption rate (SAR) (1083 wg−1, f = 430 kHz, H = 27 kAm−1), large saturation magnetization (Ms = 85 emu g−1), excellent colloidal stability and low cytotoxicity. The cell uptake properties have been investigated by Prussian blue staining, transmission electron microscopy and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer, which resulted in time-dependent and concentration-dependent internalization. The internalization appeared between 0.5 and 2 h, the NPs were mainly located in the lysosomes and kept in good dispersion after incubation with human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. Then, the relationship between cell uptake and magnetic hyperthermia performance was studied. Our results show that the hyperthermia efficiency was related to the amount of internalized NPs in the tumour cells, which was dependent on the concentration and incubation time. Interestingly, the NPs could still induce tumour cells to apoptosis/necrosis when extracellular NPs were rinsed, but the cell kill efficiency was lower than that of any rinse group, which indicated that local temperature rise was the main factor that induced tumour cells to death. Our findings suggest that this high SAR and biocompatible silica-coated Zn0.5Fe2.O4 NPs could serve as new agents for magnetic hyperthermia.