Supplementary information from Admixture of hybrid swarms of native and introduced lizards in cities is determined by the cityscape structure and invasion history

Introductions of non-native lineages increase opportunities for hybridization. Non-native lineages of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, are frequently introduced in cities where they hybridize with native populations. We aimed at unravelling the invasion history and admixture of native and non-native wall lizards in four German cities using citywide, comprehensive sampling. We barcoded and genotyped 826 lizards and tested if gene flow in populations composed of admixed native and introduced lineages is facilitated by similar environmental factors as in native populations by comparing fine-scale landscape genetic patterns. In cities with non-native lineages, lizards commonly occurred in numerous clusters of hybrid swarms, which showed variable lineage composition, consisting of up to four distinct evolutionary lineages. Hybrid swarms held vast genetic diversity and showed recent admixture with other hybrid swarms. Landscape genetic analyses showed differential effects of cityscape structures across cities, but identified water bodies as strong barriers to gene flow in both native and admixed populations. By contrast, railway tracks facilitated gene flow of admixed populations only. Our study shows that cities represent unique settings for hybridization, caused by multiple introductions of non-native taxa. Cityscape structure and invasion histories of cities will determine future evolutionary pathways at these novel hybrid zones.