Supplementary Material for ‘Electromechanical vibration of microtubules and its application in biosensors’;Codes;Comment for Codes

An electric field (EF) has the potential to excite the vibration of polarized microtubules (MTs) and thus, enable their use as a biosensor for the biophysical properties of MTs or cells. To facilitate the development, this paper aims to capture the EF-induced vibration modes and the associated frequency for MTs. The analyses were carried out based on a molecular structural mechanics model accounting for the structural details of MTs. Transverse vibration, radial breathing vibration and axial vibration were achieved for MTs subject to a transverse or an axial EF. The frequency shift and stiffness alteration of MTs were also examined due to the possible changes of the tubulin interactions in physiological or pathological processes. The strong correlation achieved between the tubulin interaction and MT vibration excited by EF provide a new avenue to a non-contacting technique for the structural or property changes in MTs, where frequency shift is used as a biomarker. This technique can be used for individual MTs and is possible for those in cells when the cytosol damping on MT vibrations is largely reduced by the unique features of MT–cytosol interface.