Supplementary Information from Substrate protein dependence of GroEL–GroES interaction cycle revealed by high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging

2018-03-31T11:15:05Z (GMT) by Daisuke Noshiro Toshio Ando
A double ring-shaped tetradecameric GroEL complex assists proper protein folding in cooperation with the cochaperonin GroES. The dynamic GroEL–GroES interaction reflects the allosteric intra- and inter-ring communications and the chaperonin reaction. Therefore, revealing this dynamic interaction is essential to understanding the allosteric communications and the operation mechanism of GroEL. Nevertheless, how this interaction proceeds in the chaperonin cycle has long been controversial. Here, we directly image the dynamic GroEL–GroES interaction under the conditions with and without foldable substrate protein using high-speed atomic force microscopy. Then, the imaging results obtained under these conditions and our previous results in the presence of unfoldable substrate are compared. The molecular movies reveal that the entire reaction pathway is highly complicated but basically identical irrespective of the substrate condition. A prominent (but moderate) difference is in the population distribution of intermediate species: symmetric GroEL : GroES2 and asymmetric GroEL : GroES1 complexes, and GroES–unbound GroEL. This difference is mainly attributed to the longer lifetime of GroEL : GroES1 complexes in the presence of foldable substrate. Moreover, the inter-ring communication, which is the basis for the alternating action of the two rings, occurs at two distinct (GroES association and dissociation) steps in the main reaction pathway, irrespective of the substrate condition.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘Allostery and molecular machines’.