Supplementary Information from Anthropogenic remediation of heavy metals selects against natural microbial remediation

In an era of unprecedented environmental change, there have been increasing ecological and global public health concerns associated with exposure to anthropogenic pollutants. While there is a pressing need to remediate polluted ecosystems, human intervention might unwittingly oppose selection for natural detoxification, which is primarily carried out by microbes. We test this possibility in the context of a ubiquitous chemical remediation strategy aimed at targeting metal pollution: the addition of lime-containing materials. Here, we show that raising pH by liming decreased the availability of toxic metals in acidic mine-degraded soils, but as a consequence selected against microbial taxa that naturally remediate soil through the production of metal-binding siderophores. Our results therefore highlight the crucial need to consider the eco-evolutionary consequences of human environmental strategies on microbial ecosystem services and other traits.