Supplementary Figures from Three-dimensional structural evolution of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis shell from embryo to adult stages

The cuttlefish shell is an internal structure with a composition and general organization unique among molluscs. Its formation and the structure–function relation are explored during Sepia officinalis development, using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanning (CAT-scan) 3D analyses coupled to physical measurements and modelling. In addition to the evolution of the overall form, modifications of the internal structure were identified from the last third embryonic stages to adult. Most of these changes can be correlated to life cycle stages and environmental constraints. Protected by the capsule during embryonic life, the first internal chambers are sustained by isolated pillars formed from the dorsal to the ventral septum. After hatching, the formation of pillars appears to be a progressive process from isolated points to interconnected pillars forming a wall-delineated labyrinthine structure. We analysed the interpillar space, the connectivity and the tortuosity of the labyrinth. The labyrinthine pillar network is complete just prior to the wintering migration, probably to sustain the need to adapt to high pressure and to allow buoyancy regulation. At that time, the connectivity in the labyrinth is compensated by an increase in tortuosity, most probably to reduce liquid diffusion in the shell. Altogether these results suggest adjustment of internal calcified structure development to both external forces and physiological needs.