Supplementary Figures and Tables from Contributions of lunate cells and wax crystals to the surface anisotropy of Nepenthes slippery zone

Nepenthes slippery zone presents surface anisotropy depending on its specialized structures. Herein, via macro–micro–nano scaled experiments, we analysed the contributions of lunate cells and wax crystals to this anisotropy. Macroscopic climbing of insects showed large displacements (triple body length within 3 s) and high velocities (6.16–20.47 mm s−1) in the inverted-fixed (towards digestive zone) slippery zone, but failed to climb forward in the normal-fixed (towards peristome) one. Friction force of insect claws sliding across inverted-fixed lunate cells was about 2.4 times of that sliding across the normal-fixed ones, whereas showed unobvious differences (1.06–1.11 times) between the inverted- and normal-fixed wax crystals. Innovative results from atomic force microscope scanning and microstructure examination demonstrated the upper layer of wax crystals causes the cantilever tip to generate rather small differences in friction data (1.92–2.72%), and the beneath layer provides slightly higher differences (4.96–7.91%). The study confirms the anisotropic configuration of lunate cells produces most of the anisotropy, whereas both surface topography and structural features of the wax crystals generate a slight contribution. These results are helpful for understanding the surface anisotropy of Nepenthes slippery zone, and guide the design of bioinspired surface with anisotropic properties.