Supplemental Table S4. Model selection results for survival differences between territorial and non-territorial Steller sea lion males in southeastern Alaska (2007–15) using the multi-state model. from Survival of adult Steller sea lions in Alaska: senescence, annual variation and covariation with male reproductive success

Population dynamics of long-lived vertebrates depend critically on adult survival, yet factors affecting survival and covariation between survival and other vital rates in adults remain poorly examined for many taxonomic groups of long-lived mammals (e.g. actuarial senescence has been examined for only 9 of 34 extant pinniped species using longitudinal data). We used mark–recapture models and data from 2795 Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups individually marked at four of five rookeries in southeastern Alaska (SEAK) and resighted for 21 years to examine senescence, annual variability and covariation among life-history traits in this long-lived, sexually dimorphic pinniped. Sexes differed in age of onset (approx. 16–17 and approx. 8–9 years for females and males, respectively), but not rate (−0.047 and −0.046/year of age for females and males) of senescence. Survival of adult males from northern SEAK had greatest annual variability (approx. ±0.30 among years), whereas survival of adult females ranged approximately ±0.10 annually. Positive covariation between male survival and reproductive success was observed. Survival of territorial males was 0.20 higher than that of non-territorial males, resulting in the majority of males alive at oldest ages being territorial.