SandData.xlsx from The dynamics of granular flow from a silo with two symmetric openings

The dynamics of granular flow in a rectangular silo with two symmetrically placed exit openings is investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV), flow rate measurements and discrete element modelling (DEM). The flow of mustard seeds in a perspex silo is recorded using a high-speed camera and the resulting image frames are analysed using PIV to obtain velocity, velocity divergence and shear rate plots. A change in flow structure is observed as the distance L between the two openings is varied. The mass flow rate is shown to be at a maximum at zero opening separation, decreasing as L is increased, it then reaches a minimum before rising to an equilibrium rate close to two times that of an isolated (non-interacting) opening. The flow rate experiment is repeated using amaranth and screened sand and similar behaviour is observed. Although this result is in contrast with some recent DEM and physical experiments in silo systems, this effect has been reported in an analogous system; the evacuation of pedestrians from a room through two doors. Our experimental results are replicated using DEM and we show that inter-particle friction controls the flow rate behaviour and explains the discrepancies in the literature results.