Genes in most common gene ontology terms from Convergent evolution in human and domesticate adaptation to high-altitude environments

2019-04-12T07:41:32Z (GMT) by Kelsey E. Witt Emilia Huerta-Sánchez
Humans and their domestic animals have lived and thrived in high-altitude environments worldwide for thousands of years. These populations have developed a number of adaptations to survive in a hypoxic environment, and several genomic studies have been conducted to identify the genes that drive these adaptations. Here, we discuss the various adaptations and genetic variants that have been identified as adaptive in human and domestic animal populations and the ways in which convergent evolution has occurred as these populations have adapted to high-altitude environments. We found that human and domesticate populations have adapted to hypoxic environments in similar ways. Specific genes and biological pathways have been involved in high-altitude adaptation for multiple populations, although the specific variants differ between populations. Additionally, we found that the gene <i>EPAS1</i> is often a target of selection in hypoxic environments and has been involved in multiple adaptive introgression events. High-altitude environments exert strong selective pressures, and human and animal populations have evolved in convergent ways to cope with a chronic lack of oxygen.This article is part of the theme issue ‘Convergent evolution in the genomics era: new insights and directions'.