Figure S4 from The histone deacetylase NlHDAC1 regulates both female and male fertility in the brown planthopper, <i>Nilaparvata lugens</i>

Histone acetylation is a specific type of chromatin modification that serves as a key regulatory mechanism for many cellular processes in mammals. However, little is known about its biological function in invertebrates. Here, we identified 12 members of histone deacetylases (NlHDACs) in the brown planthopper (BPH), <i>Nilaparvata lugens</i>. RNAi-mediated silencing assay showed that <i>NlHdac1</i>, <i>NlHdac3</i> and <i>NlHdac4</i> played critical roles in female fertility via regulating ovary maturation or ovipositor development. Silencing of <i>NlHdac1</i> substantially increased acetylation level of histones H3 and H4 in ovaries, indicating NlHDAC1 is the main histone deacetylase in ovaries of BPH. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed that knockdown of <i>NlHdac1</i> impaired ovary development via multiple signalling pathways including the TOR pathway. Acoustic recording showed that males with <i>NlHdac1</i> knockdown failed to make courtship songs, and thus were unacceptable to wild-type females, resulting in unfertilized eggs. Competition mating assay showed that wild-type females overwhelmingly preferred to mate with control males over <i>NlHdac1</i>-knockdown males. These findings improve our understanding of reproductive strategies controlled by HDACs in insects and provide a potential target for pest control.