Figure 5 from Resveratrol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: enhanced stability, solubility and bioactivity of resveratrol for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease therapy

Resveratrol (3, 4′, 5-trihydroxy-<i>trans</i>-stilbene, RSV), a nutraceutical, has recently attracted lots of attention because of its outstanding pharmacological potential. The effects of RSV on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain inconclusive, although a wealth of research has been done. The major obstacle presented was RSV's poor bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility, chemical instability and intestinal metabolism. In this study, nanotechnology was used to encapsulate RSV to enhance its stability, water solubility and bioactivity, which can be used to treat NAFLD by HepG2 hepatocytes-induced <i>in vitro</i>. RSV-loaded poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (RSV-PLGA-NPs) were prepared according to an oil/water (O/W) emulsion technique. The RSV-PLGA-NPs were of spherical morphology with an average size of 176.1 nm and a negative charge of −22.6 mV. These nanoparticles exhibited remarkable encapsulation efficiency (EE%) (97.25%) and drug loading (14.9%) for RSV. A sustained RSV release from RSV-PLGA-NPs could be achieved especially in acidic conditions when simulating transporting through the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, these nanoparticles were stable enough to store at 4°C for a least six months with unchanged EE%. Moreover, RSV-PLGA-NPs were more efficient in alleviating lipogenesis, promoting lipolysis and reducing hepatocellular proliferation than free RSV due to its improved stability, water solubility and bioactivity. These findings indicated that the RSV-PLGA-NPs provided superb and stable drug delivery with small particle size, high capsulation efficiency, well-controlled drug release, which greatly enhanced the stability, water solubility and bioactivity. Besides, the discovery that the inhibitory effect of RSV-PLGA-NPs on hepatocellular proliferation and lipid accumulation in steatotic HepG2 cells may provide a new way to study the mechanism of NAFLD. Therefore, RSV-PLGA-NPs have a promising potential for NAFLD therapy.