Extended Methods, Fossil Calibrations, Figures S1-S13, and captions for Tables S1-S8 from A phylogenomic framework, evolutionary timeline and genomic resources for comparative studies of decapod crustaceans

Comprising over 15 000 living species, decapods (crabs, shrimp and lobsters) are the most instantly recognizable crustaceans, representing a considerable global food source. Although decapod systematics have received much study, limitations of morphological and Sanger sequence data have yet to produce a consensus for higher-level relationships. Here, we introduce a new anchored hybrid enrichment kit for decapod phylogenetics designed from genomic and transcriptomic sequences that we used to capture new high-throughput sequence data from 94 species, including 58 of 179 extant decapod families, and 11 of 12 major lineages. The enrichment kit yields 410 loci (greater than 86 000 bp) conserved across all lineages of Decapoda, more clade-specific molecular data than any prior study. Phylogenomic analyses recover a robust decapod tree of life strongly supporting the monophyly of all infraorders, and monophyly of each of the reptant, ‘lobster’ and ‘crab’ groups, with some results supporting pleocyemate monophyly. We show that crown decapods diverged in the Late Ordovician and most crown lineages diverged in the Triassic–Jurassic, highlighting a cryptic Paleozoic history, and post-extinction diversification. New insights into decapod relationships provide a phylogenomic window into morphology and behaviour, and a basis to rapidly and cheaply expand sampling in this economically and ecologically significant invertebrate clade.