Electronic Supplementary Material from Exploring the intrinsic behaviour of multisite phosphorylation systems as part of signalling pathways

2018-06-13T16:45:46Z (GMT) by Thapanar Suwanmajo J. Krishnan
Multisite phosphorylation is a basic way of chemically encoding substrate function and a recurring feature of cell signalling pathways. A number of studies have explored information processing characteristics of multisite phosphorylation, through studies of the intrinsic kinetics. Many of these studies focus on the module in isolation. In this paper, we build a bridge to connect the behaviour of multisite modification in isolation to that as part of pathways. We study the effect of activation of the enzymes (which are basic ways in which the module may be regulated), as well the effects of the modified substrates being involved in further modifications or exiting reaction compartments. We find that these effects can induce multiple kinds of transitions, including to behaviour not seen intrinsically in the multisite modification module. We then build on these insights to investigate how these multisite modification systems can be tuned by enzyme activation to realize a range of information processing outcomes for the design of synthetic phosphorylation circuits. Connecting the complexity of multisite modification kinetics, with the pathways in which they are embedded, serves as a basis for teasing out many aspects of their interaction, providing insights of relevance in systems biology, synthetic biology/chemistry and chemical information processing.