Ecological resilience decreases and stability to freeloader invasion increases as the death rate increases in both the yeast-sucrose system and the Ecological Public Goods Game. from Cooperators trade off ecological resilience and evolutionary stability in public goods games

a) Recently published data of yeast growing in sucrose[4,5] was used to calculate the ecological resilience[5] (green) and stability to freeloader invasion (red) of a pure cooperator population as the dilution factor (an experimentally controllable effective death rate) is varied. As the dilution factor increases the ecological resilience diminishes but the stability to freeloader invasion increases. b) Consistent with the yeast experimental data, the EPGG ecological resilience decreases as the death rate increase, while the stability to freeloader invasion increases as the death rate increases. Data was simulated by increasing d from 0.5 to 5, while fixing N = 25, r = 7.0.