Detailed information about fabrication methods, cell culture, microfluidic cell seeding, and verification of the placental barrier from Drug transport across the human placenta: review of placenta-on-a-chip and previous approaches

In the past few decades, the placenta became a very controversial topic that has had many researchers and pharmacists discussing the significance of the effects of pharmaceutical drug intake and how it is a possible leading cause towards birth defects. The creation of an in vitro microengineered model of the placenta can be used to replicate the interactions between the mother and fetus, specifically pharmaceutical drug intake reactions. As the field of nanotechnology significantly continues growing, nanotechnology will become more apparent in the study of medicine and other scientific disciplines, specifically microengineering applications. This review is based on past and current research that compares the feasibility and testing of the placenta-on-a-chip microengineered model to the previous and underdeveloped in vivo and ex vivo approaches. The testing of the practicality and effectiveness of the in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo models requires the experimentation of prominent pharmaceutical drugs that most mothers consume during pregnancy. In this case, these drugs need to be studied and tested more often. However, there are challenges associated with the in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo processes when developing a practical placental model, which are discussed in further detail.